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Endocrinology Series: Growth Hormone

Growth hormone’s release is pulsatile. There are spikes of GH release with an overall low concentration in the body. Therefore, its measurement is meaningless. GH targets fat and liver cells to produce IGF-1. Insulin induced hypoglycemia stimulates GH release and hyperglycemia inhibits GH release. GH action occurs when it binds to its membrane receptor. Membrane […]

Endocrinology Series: Uses of Synthetic GnRH

Factrel Half life is 2 to 4 minutes; used for diagnostic purposes to differentiate between pituitary and hypothalamic defects in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Lutrepulse Half life is 2 to 4 minutes; used to treat patients with reproductive disorders secondary to deficiency of GnRH or disordered secretion of GnRH. It is administered via IV with […]

Endocrinology Series: Oxytocin, A Diverse Nanopeptide (Part 3)

Virtually all vertebrates have an Oxytocin like nonapeptide hormone that supports reproductive functions in a vasopressin-like nonapeptide hormone involved in water regulation. The two genes are always located close to each other (less than fifteen thousand DNA bases apart on the same chromosome and are transcribed in opposite directions). It is thought that two genes […]

Endocrinology Series: Oxytocin, A Diverse Nanopeptide (Part 2)

The hormone Oxytocin is used to: *Stimulate contractions of the uterus and smooth muscle tissue *Help strengthen labor *Reduce bleeding after the delivery of a baby Current evidence suggests that Oxytocin is involved in facilitating sperm transport within the male reproductive system and perhaps also in the female, due to its presence in seminal fluid. […]

Endocrinology Series: Oxytocin, A Diverse Nanopeptide (Part 1)

DESCRIPTION A peptide is defined as low molecular weight polymers of less than 40 amino acids joined together by amide linkages. Oxytocin, often abbreviated OXT, is included in this group and is a nonapeptide, meaning that it contains a sequence of nine peptides. The sequence is cysteine, tyrosine, isoleucine, glutamine, asparagine, cysteine, proline, leucine, and […]

Endocrinology Series: What Hormone Stimulates What Gland?

This clinical chart covers what hormone stimulates what gland? TSH Thyroid Gland ACTH Adrenal Gland LH and FSH Testes and Ovaries GH Insulin Like Growth Factor One (IGF-1) Prolactin Found an error in this article? Please contact us! Last updated October 2013

Endocrinology Series: Stimulators Via Positive and Negative Regulation

Ever wondered which releasing factors stimulate the secretion of which respective hormone in the pituitary gland? Or what inhibits the secretion of hormones in the pituitary gland? This clinical chart provides the answer. Stimulators Via Positive Regulation Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH ) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Prolactin (TSH and PRl) GNRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone) FSH […]

Endocrinology Series: Three Classes of Adrenohypophyseal hormones

Somatotropic Glycoprotein Propiomelanocrotin (POMC) derived Growth Hormone (GH)Prolactin (Prl) Thyrotropin (TSH)Luteinizing Hormone (LH)Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)(a subunit same, B subunit different)Placental chorionic gonadotropin (CG) Corticotropin (ACTH)A and B melanocyte stimulating hormones (a MSH and B MSH) Found an error in this article? Please contact us! Last updated October 2013

Endocrinology Series: An Overview of Hormones

Endocrine glands release hormones directly into the circulatory system that have specific actions at sites remote to the site of secretion. A signaling cell sends a signaling molecule (cytokine, chemokine, etc) that binds to a receptor on the target cell. The main signaling molecules of endocrine glands are hormones.  Three types of cellular communication via […]

Endocrinology Series: What Are Endocrine Glands?

Endocrine Glands Include Pituitary Pineal Thyroid Thymus Pancreas Ovary Adrenal * 2 Parathyroid * 4 Testes * 2  Adenohypophysis = anterior pituitary Its hormones are essential for: Regulating growth and development Stimulating the reproductive system Providing a response to stress Regulating intermediary metabolism Synthesis and secretion of adenohypophysis hormones are controlled by: Hypothalamic factors Peripheral […]