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Hormonal action is accomplished by the specific binding of hormones to one of two types of receptors:

  1. Are Transport proteins ( the main membrane receptors that are regulated by hormones )
  2. Are Coupled to GTP binding proteins that usually have 7 transmembrane regions and:
  • Activate adenylate cyclase
  • Inactivate adenylate cyclase
  • Activate phospholipase C
  • Affect ion channels
  1. Are Tyrosine Kinases
  2. Are members of unclassified groups
Nuclear Steroid type receptors derived from cholesterol. Are degraded as either

  1. Sulfur conjugates
  2. Glucoronoid conjugates

Include binding to:

  1. Steroids
  2. Sterols
  3. Thyroid hormone (thyroxine)
  4. Vitamin D
    1. Urban children do not get enough sunlight and as a result are lacking in receptors for vitamin D

Hormones can be:

  1. Natural
  2. Bio-engineered
  3. Modified derivatives

Binding of ligands to nuclear receptors promotes specific binding of the receptor complex to DNA regulatory elements that modulate rates of transcription.

The synthesis of proteins takes hours. Hormones can either increase or decrease protein synthesis.

Side effects of hormonal drugs have their basis in normal feedback mechanisms of hormonal action.

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Last updated October 2013