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Below are the sources for our Diversity in Pharmacy series:

Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu, Betancourt, Joseph R., Carrillo, Emilio, J. and Green, Alexander R. “Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care,” Public Health Representative, July and August 2003, Edition 118, Volume 4, pages 293-302.

Anderson, Douglas C., Jr, PharmD, DPh, Cobb, Henry H., PhD and Sheffield, Melody C., PharmD, “Influences on Pharmacy Students’ Decision to Pursue a Doctor of Pharmacy Degree,”American Journal of Pharmacy Education, April 15, 2008, Edition 72, Volume 2, page 22.

Assemi, Mitra, PharmD, Nkansah, Nancy T., PharmD and Youmans, Sharon L., MBA, PharmD, and,“Fostering and Managing Diversity in Schools of Pharmacy,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, December 17, 2009, Edition 73, Volume 8, page 152.

Brookover, C., Echeverri, M.,and Kennedy, K. “Assessing pharmacy students’ self-perception of cultural competence.” Journal of Health Care Poor Underserved, February 2013, Supplemental 1, pages 64-92.

Brown, G., “A closer look at the minority female and male: trends in the HIV/AIDS pandemic,”Minority Nurse Newsletter, Summer 1999, Edition 6, Volume 3, pages 1-2.

Byrd, W.M. and Clayton, L.A. “An American Health Dilemma: A History of Blacks in the Health System,” Journal of National Medical Association, February 1992, Edition 84, Volume 2, pages 189-200.

Cohen, J.J., Gabriel, B.A. and Terrell, C. “The Case for Diversity in The Healthcare Workforce.”Health Affairs (Millwood), September and October 2002, Edition 21, Volume 5, pages 90-102.

Culp, R.W., “The Genesis of Black Pharmacists in American to 1900,” Transferring Student College Physicians, Philadelphia, April 1975, Edition 42, Volume 4, pages 401-411.

Dionne, M.G., “The United States Health Workforce Profile.” CAH Sociology Demographic Medicine, April and June 2006, Edition 46, Volume 2, pages 221-252.

Garwood, CL, Johnson, JL and Moser, L.. “Health Literacy: A Primer for Pharmacists,” American Journal of Health System Pharmacists, June 1, 2013, 70 (11), pages 949-955.

Grumbach, K. and Mendoza, R. “Disparities in Human Resources: Addressing the Lack of Diversity in the Health Professions.” March and April 2008, Health Affairs (Millwood), Edition 27, Volume 2, pages 413-422.

Hayes, Barbara, Ph.D., “Increasing the Representation of Underrepresented Minority Groups in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy,” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, February 15, 2008, Edition 72, Volume 1, page 14.

Jones, D.P., “The Critical Need for Black Nurses,” ABNF J., Summer 2013, Edition 24, Volume 3, pages 67-68.

Jones, P.R., Nsiah-Kumi, P.A., Pamies, R.J. and Smith, S.G., “Pipeline Programs in the Health Professions: Preserving Diversity and Reducing Health Disparities.” Journal of National Medical Association, September 2009, Edition 101, Volume 9, pages 836-840 and pages 845-851.

Kindig, D.A. and Yan, G., “Physician Supply in Rural Areas with Large Minority Populations,” Health Affairs (Millwood), Summer 1993, Edition 12, Volume 2, pages 177-184.

Lassiter, Shana L., MA, and Mitchell, Dennis A., DDS, MPH and “Addressing Health Care Disparities and Increasing Workforce Diversity: The Next Step for the Dental, Medical, and Public Health Professions,” American Journal of Public Health, December 2006, Edition 96, Volume 12, pages 2093-2097.

Mason H.L., Murawski M.M, Noureldin M. and Plake K.S. “Students Pharmacists’ Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine,” Journal of American Pharmacist Association, November 1, 2013, Edition 6, pages 618-625.

Okoro, O.N., Odedina, F.T., Reams R.R. and Smith W,T. “Clinical cultural competency and knowledge of health disparities among pharmacy students.” Pain Physician journal, July 2012, Supplemental 3), pages 169-175; and American Journal of Pharmacy Education, April 10, 2012, Edition 76, page 40.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, “The Condition of Education 2012,” (NCES 2012-045), Table A-47-2.

Villarruel, A.M., “Recruiting Minority Nurses,” American Journal of Nursing, May 2002, Edition 102, Volume 5, page 11.

Worthen, D.B. “Champion of Minority Pharmacists,” Journal of American Pharmacy Association, January and February 2006, Edition 46, Volume 1, pages 100-103.

Yearby, R. “Racial inequities in mortality and access to health care. The untold peril of rationing health care in the United States.” Journal of Legal Medicine, January 2011, Edition 32, Volume 1, pages 77-91.

Last updated January 2014