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THE Online Pharmacy Community

Endocrinology Series: Hormonal Binding

Hormonal action is accomplished by the specific binding of hormones to one of two types of receptors: Membrane Are Transport proteins ( the main membrane receptors that are regulated by hormones ) Are Coupled to GTP binding proteins that usually have 7 transmembrane regions and: Activate adenylate cyclase Inactivate adenylate cyclase Activate phospholipase C Affect […]

Endocrinology Series: Growth Hormone

Growth hormone’s release is pulsatile. There are spikes of GH release with an overall low concentration in the body. Therefore, its measurement is meaningless. GH targets fat and liver cells to produce IGF-1. Insulin induced hypoglycemia stimulates GH release and hyperglycemia inhibits GH release. GH action occurs when it binds to its membrane receptor. Membrane […]

Endocrinology Series: Oxytocin, A Diverse Nanopeptide (Part 1)

DESCRIPTION A peptide is defined as low molecular weight polymers of less than 40 amino acids joined together by amide linkages. Oxytocin, often abbreviated OXT, is included in this group and is a nonapeptide, meaning that it contains a sequence of nine peptides. The sequence is cysteine, tyrosine, isoleucine, glutamine, asparagine, cysteine, proline, leucine, and […]

Endocrinology Series: What Hormone Stimulates What Gland?

This clinical chart covers what hormone stimulates what gland? TSH Thyroid Gland ACTH Adrenal Gland LH and FSH Testes and Ovaries GH Insulin Like Growth Factor One (IGF-1) Prolactin Found an error in this article? Please contact us! Last updated October 2013

Endocrinology Series: Stimulators Via Positive and Negative Regulation

Ever wondered which releasing factors stimulate the secretion of which respective hormone in the pituitary gland? Or what inhibits the secretion of hormones in the pituitary gland? This clinical chart provides the answer. Stimulators Via Positive Regulation Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH ) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Prolactin (TSH and PRl) GNRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone) FSH […]

Endocrinology Series: Three Classes of Adrenohypophyseal hormones

Somatotropic Glycoprotein Propiomelanocrotin (POMC) derived Growth Hormone (GH)Prolactin (Prl) Thyrotropin (TSH)Luteinizing Hormone (LH)Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)(a subunit same, B subunit different)Placental chorionic gonadotropin (CG) Corticotropin (ACTH)A and B melanocyte stimulating hormones (a MSH and B MSH) Found an error in this article? Please contact us! Last updated October 2013

Endocrinology Series: An Overview of Hormones

Endocrine glands release hormones directly into the circulatory system that have specific actions at sites remote to the site of secretion. A signaling cell sends a signaling molecule (cytokine, chemokine, etc) that binds to a receptor on the target cell. The main signaling molecules of endocrine glands are hormones.  Three types of cellular communication via […]

Endocrinology Series: What Are Endocrine Glands?

Endocrine Glands Include Pituitary Pineal Thyroid Thymus Pancreas Ovary Adrenal * 2 Parathyroid * 4 Testes * 2  Adenohypophysis = anterior pituitary Its hormones are essential for: Regulating growth and development Stimulating the reproductive system Providing a response to stress Regulating intermediary metabolism Synthesis and secretion of adenohypophysis hormones are controlled by: Hypothalamic factors Peripheral […]